Sunday, May 24, 2020

Thesis Should Abortions Be Legal - 6429 Words

Should Abortions be Legal? Regina Corroa PH103 Informal Logic Barri Mallin June 20, 2010 Should Abortions be Legal? Thesis Abortion is defined as intentional termination of a pregnancy after conception (O’Brien). Abortion is a very touchy subject that has been around for thousands of years. When emotions are used for reasoning this is called a fallacy. With this particular issue the fallacy â€Å"slippery slope† is very common in the persuasion of arguments (Moore, p 182). Slippery slope is when one thinks a simple action can lead to more complicated consequences in the future. There are many risks that are involved with abortion that should be deliberated very carefully before making the decision to proceed. There are many laws against†¦show more content†¦The procedures have become safer and better for all. Clinics have become more familiar to all the new products and the tools are more conformed to modern technology. The current government is now pushing to make abortion easier for women. Since President Obama was elected the U.S. government has moved swiftly to allow the use of US taxpayers money to fund abortion groups all over the world by rescinding the Mexico City Policy first instituted in the 1980: to enable China’s coercive population control program by funding the united Nations Population Fund, and :to roll back restrictions on funding for human embryo-destroying stem cell experimentation.(Smith). Synthesis One of the nine reasons found that we should not legalize abortion is the laws against abortion kill women (Kilinger). Many women are killed each year during childbirth, but almost four times more women are killed when they have an abortion (Lowen). Women need to know the health risks involved with abortions before making that choice. Having an abortion has many long lasting effects such as: emotional disorders, blood infections, and an increase in breast cancer (Lowen). The leading causes of death for the women who had an abortion are infection, hemorrhage, bowel injuries, clotting disorders. If air was to get to the amniotic fluid, or fetal tissue to get into the woman’s blood stream they would die (Kilinger).Sometimes abortions are not effective, andShow MoreRelatedRight to Live In the Article In Defense of Abortion and Infanticide by Michael Tooley923 Words   |  4 Pagesthe basic thesis of the article assigned to you. (Each has one main thesis supported by arguments, examples, and analogies). Do you think the argument is sound or unsound? Explain why you find it sound or, if unsound, what false premises and or fallacies you find. Do you think the examples/analogies strengthen the authors argument? What do you think of the After-Birth Abortion argument? (See the short article with the link on the Content page.) In the article In Defense of Abortion and InfanticideRead MoreAnti Abortion informative outline1025 Words   |  5 Pagesconvince women why abortion should be illegal. I. Introduction A. Attention Getter: (Abortion; a new generation’s way of shrugging off responsibility of their action at the cost of Human life.) B. Tie to the audience: According to the 1st Amendment to the constitution that says we have the right to freedom of speech. I’m sure most of us would agree to the fact that we can say and do what we want and choose. For it is our choice to voice our opinions. In relation, mothers then should have the rightRead MoreIs Abortion Right or Wrong?1028 Words   |  5 Pagesprocess of having an abortion has been a controversial topic for many years. Even though an abortion is legal, Americans believe abortions are only morally correct when used for medical reasons. The word â€Å"abortion† can be defined various ways depending on a person’s perspective. Abortion is defined by Oxford as â€Å"the act of giving untimely birth to offspring, premature delivery, miscarriage; the procuring of premature delivery so as to destroy offspring† (Dionisio). The National Abortion Federation definesRead MoreWhy Killing An Ordinary Adult Is Morally Wrong1485 Words   |  6 Pa ges Therefore, according to Marquis, a new strategy should be adopted to develop the argument o abortion. In this case, the author starts by illustrating why killing an ordinary adult is morally wrong, and tries to apply same reasons to the case of abortion. Therefore, if similar reasons can be applied to the context of abortion, then decision of it being immoral will be made. The wrong aspect in killing relates to depriving the victim life which is inherently valuable. In this case, killing deprivesRead MoreThe Controversies Regarding Abortion798 Words   |  3 PagesAbortion With the subject of abortion, it seems that no consensus will ever be reached. Those who argue in favor of choice will never see from the perspective of the pro-lifers and vice versa. The major difference is that those who are pro-choice have never been responsible for the deaths of the opposition. Before the Roe v. Wade case made abortion legal in this country, abortions were unlawful in the United States. Anyone who needed or wanted an abortion for any reason, physical or emotional, wouldRead MoreShould Abortion Be Made Illegal? The United States?937 Words   |  4 PagesCon Side of Debate Summary: â€Å"Should abortion be made illegal in the United States?† Imagine, over 53 million people are killed in the worst case of genocide ever recorded in the history of mankind. What should be done to stop those terrible atrocities? Should someone be hold accountable? What about the senseless slaughter of innocent fetuses? Abortion has affected us all in one way or another since Roe vs. Wade, and it s legalization. The morality issue is one, which will have a hauntingRead MoreAbortion Thesis Essay1250 Words   |  5 PagesVersion Thesis Abortion is a totally unacceptable, cruel and unethical practice and should be considered illegal except under some special cases and medical circumstances that indicate a danger to the mother. Our judicial system must consider the ethical and moral aspects of abortion as an intrinsic part of the problem when approaching this social issue. The recent banning of the partial birth abortion is a huge stride in the positive direction. Introduction Abortion is theRead MoreThesis: Is Abortion Morally Permissible?851 Words   |  4 PagesAbortion Thesis: Abortion is morally permissible in which a fetus is not a person which deprives the fetus to its right to life, circular reasoning is an ineffective to oppose abortion, abortion only risks the fetus not society, and deprivation from a fetuss future and suffering of a loved one has no affect on the argument towards anti-abortion. Mary Anne Warren in On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion stated the characteristics which are central to the concept of personhood which are â€Å"sentienceRead MoreThe Issue Of Abortion On The United States Essay1280 Words   |  6 Pagespaper is the issue of Abortion, My thesis in this paper is to analyze the history of abortion in the United States prior to the Roe vs. Wade decision and afterwards, and to demonstrate the ways in which our two major political parties’ views on this issue have shifted over time along with the public’s view on the issue. Abortion has been practiced for most of human history. The ancient Greeks and Romans practiced it, although not all ancient thinkers had the same views on abortion. Ancient Greek â€Å"fatherRead MoreThe Coats And Houses The Mother s Womb1543 Words   |  7 Pagesany all actions that pertain to her property and all of its intrinsic value. To this, she makes the case that a woman’s womb is her property and that the fetus is merely intruding upon her property – giving her the right to expel the fetus through abortion. In the third scenario she presents the â€Å"Famous Violinist† thought experiment. Here Thompson poses the question of when a person is subjugated against their will in order to prolong someone else’s life, is it not permissible to end this person life

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

What Was the Gang of Four in China

The Gang of Four, or siren bang, was a group of four influential Chinese Communist Party figures during the latter years of Mao Zedongs rule. The Gang consisted of Maos wife, Jiang Qing, and her associates Wang Hongwen, Yao Wenyuan, and Zhang Chunqiao. Wang, Yao, and Zhang were all major party officials from Shanghai. They rose to prominence during the Cultural Revolution (1966-76), pushing Maos policies in Chinas second city. When Maos health began to decline over that decade, they gained control of a number of major government functions. The Cultural Revolution It is not clear how much control the Gang of Four really exercised over the policies and decisions surrounding the Cultural Revolution, and to what extent they simply carried out Maos wishes. Although the Red Guards who implemented the Cultural Revolution across the country did revive Maos political career, they also brought a dangerous degree of chaos and destruction to China. The unrest sparked a political struggle between a reformist group, including Deng Xiaoping, Zhou Enlai, and Ye Jianying, and the Gang of Four. When Mao died on Sept. 9, 1976, the Gang of Four sought to take control of the country, but in the end, none of the major players took power. Maos choice  and his eventual successor  was the previously little known but reform-minded Hua Guofeng. Hua publicly denounced the excesses of the Cultural Revolution. On Oct. 6, 1976, he ordered the arrest of Jiang Qing and the other members of her cabal. The official press gave the purged officials their nickname, The Gang of Four, and asserted that Mao had turned against them in the last year of his life.  It also blamed them for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution, setting off a nationwide round of denunciations against Jiang and her allies. Their major supporters in Shanghai were invited to Beijing for a conference  and were immediately arrested as well. On Trial for Treason In 1981, the members of the Gang of Four went on trial for treason and other crimes against the Chinese state. Among the charges were the deaths of 34,375 people over the course of the Cultural Revolution, as well as the persecution of three-quarters of a million innocent Chinese. The trials were strictly for show, so the three male defendants did not mount any defense. Wang Hongwen and Yao Wenyuan both confessed to all the crimes with which they were charged  and offered their repentance. Zhang Chunqiao quietly and steadfastly maintained his innocence throughout. Jiang Qing, on the other hand, yelled, cried, and ranted during her trial, shouting that she was innocent and had only obeyed orders from her husband, Mao Zedong. The Gang of Fours Sentencing In the end, all four defendants were convicted. Wang Hongwen was sentenced to life in prison; he was released to a hospital in 1986  and died of an unspecified liver ailment in 1992 at just 56 years of age. Yao Wenyuan received a 20-year sentence; he was released from prison in 1996  and passed away from complications of diabetes in 2005.   Both Jiang Qing and Zhang Chunqiao were sentenced to death, although their sentences were later commuted to life in prison. Jiang was moved to house arrest at her daughters home in 1984  and committed suicide in 1991. She reportedly had been diagnosed with throat cancer and hanged herself to avoid suffering any longer from the condition. Zhang was released from prison on medical grounds in 1998 after being diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. He lived until 2005. The downfall of the Gang of Four signaled widespread changes for the Peoples Republic of China. Under Hua Guofeng and the rehabilitated Deng Xiaoping, China moved away from the worst excesses of the Mao era. It established diplomatic and trade relations with the United States and other western countries  and began to pursue its current course of economic liberalization paired with firm political control.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Graduate Studies Free Essays

. Graduate Study Challenges and Strategies for Personal Success Christine Z. Liwag University of Phoenix Pursuing a higher education in any field of study can be very challenging to any person. We will write a custom essay sample on Graduate Studies or any similar topic only for you Order Now It requires a lot of hard work, time management, support issues and organizational skills. It also takes a lot of courage and determination in order for a person to be successful on obtaining a master’s degree or even a doctorate degree. Being able to manage time and stress level together with work and family management are essential in successfully completing graduate school. A master’s degree student should have a full dedication and be able to balance the demand of work schedule and school schedule. Students who are married with kids should have a strong support system from the spouse and the children in order for the stress level of going to school and balancing family time and work be lessened. One of the many reasons on why I am pursuing a higher education in nursing is to be able to expand my knowledge in my profession and gain more learning experiences so that I can do more for my future patients. Another reason is to be able to make a difference in the nursing industry. My short-term goal is to be able to pass every class that I will take for my Master’s degree and to have a full time job as an RN so that I can start having experience in the hospital. My long term goal is to become a professional and be good on what I do so that I can share my knowledge to patients, nurses and other member of the healthcare field. Another long term goal of mine is to become a nurse anesthetist and to work in a higher position. Some of the challenges that students like me often experiences are high stress level from work, family and school, lack of time management and the process of taking the classes online. The high demand of work schedule and the time that a student spends at work gives a student less time to complete the tasks that the graduate school requires. According to Wild, J. , (2008, pg 454), â€Å"Time is an important resource which has to be managed effectively whether it is at home, at work or study. Time, unlike other resources cannot be increased or replaced. Poor time management can lead to increased costs and mistakes and is a major cause of stress†. The amount of stress level that I am receiving from my job at UCLA is a little bit high compared to the amount of stress that I get from graduate school. Another challenge for me is the process of taking all my classes online. In order for me to overcome these challenges, I need to be able to manage my time accordingly to reduce stress, organize my tasks starting from work to school and at home and become more confident and comfortable in taking online classes. My strategies for time management are to create a work schedule and school schedule. I plan to create a calendar in which I can write down the tasks for every hour of my work and school. Becoming comfortable taking online classes is also one of my goals. My strategy is to explore the website and know the functions of every tab, links, and to figure out how the classes are going to be held. For this one, I attended a new student orientation and it helped me explored the things that I will need to do once the classes starts. According to Ramos, J. (2011, pg 283), â€Å"The traditional on-campus graduate learning classrooms have historically consisted of daily face-to-face interactions with instructors and peers, class lectures and discussion groups. Learning, in the on-campus tradition, takes place at the physical site of an institution. Furthermore, face-to-face interaction with peers, faculty, and school administrators is part of the traditional on-campus graduate school experienceà ¢â‚¬ . To achieve my short term goal, I will make sure that I always keep up with my academic workload and make sure that I completed every task and learn all of them in order for me to pass every class. I am also applying to different RN jobs right now so that I can get the experience I need as a registered nurse. The steps that I needed to complete to achieve my long term goal is to first graduate from master’s degree and earn more experiences working in the critical units of a hospital. Effective communication with other students and with the professors is one of the key to a successful completion of graduate studies especially when doing it online. Maintaining personal communication to groups and always updating each other will lead to an effective team work and good academic standing. According to Burt, C. , Westrate A. , Brown, C. , Champion, F. , (2010, pg. 649), â€Å"Engaging in  time management, particularly planning behaviors, can also contribute positively to group performance†. However, there are also some weakness and strengths in finding an effective communication. Some of those weaknesses are the time difference of every student in one online class. Another is the lack of time to log in to the student website to check messages and the time spend to respond on emails. To improve communication and to reduce the conflict when communicating, students should log in to the website regularly and check messages and emails in a timely manner. Overall, personal success in finishing graduate school is easy to obtain as long as the person is dedicated and passionate enough to make it work no matter how busy the person is. With enough time management and organizational skills, it will become easier and doable as students gets close to graduation. References Burt, C. , Westrate, A. , Brown, C. , Champion, F. (2010). Development of the time management environment (TiME) scale. Journal of Managerial Psychology,25(6), 649-668. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from the EBSCOhost database. Ramos, J. (2011). A Comparison of Perceived Stress Levels and Coping Styles of Non-traditional Graduate Students in Distance Learning versus On-campus Programs. Contemporary Educational Technology,  2(4), 282-293. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from the EBSCOhost database. Wild, J. (2008). Tips for learning: effective time management. British Journal of Healthcare Assistants,  2(9), 454-455. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from the EBSCOhost database. How to cite Graduate Studies, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Mental illness Population Studies

Question: Discuss about theMental Illnessfor Population Studies. Answer: Introduction: Mental illness is like a two edged sword. On the one side of it, people struggle with their disabilities and symptoms of it and on the other side they face many issues because of their surrounding and because of injustice happening with them. Mental illness is quite common now days. Most of the people surviving by this illness doing well but sometimes when they lose the control they become out of control. Earlier police was not responding it properly. Even the cops have shot many people surviving with this illness. But now they have trained properly to respond the people properly and make them feel better towards the society and environment. It has been found that people who has experienced a serious disorder is quite like to live in poverty. Currently, the patient of mental illness is not treated properly in the society. The society, friends, family and organization of the individual believes that such person is of no worth and they cannot do anything without the help of others. Mental Illness: Mental illness is a health condition which involves many changes in emotions, behavior and thinking of a human being. This illness is mainly associated with problems or distress functioning in work, family and social activities. Mental illness is very common now days. According to a research, 19%, 24% and 12% US adults are experiencing some form of it, serious form of it and substance use disorder of it respectively (Corrigan, Watson Barr, 2006). The illness of mental is treatable. Almost all the individuals with mental illness are doing well in their daily lives. Multiple Disorders: There are many kinds of disorders due to mental illness. Some of them are as follows: Main disorder Major depressive Disorder Anxiety disorder Mood disorders Bipolar disorder Dysthymic disorder Panic Disorder Schizzophrenia Suicide Social phobia Specific phobia OCD PTSD Eating Disorders Autism Personality Disorders Agoraphobia Avoidant personality disorders (Rsch, Angermeyer Corrigan, 2005) Micro: Mental illness is quite different from normal stress or sadness. A person loses all of his senses such as thinking, behaving etc. Mental illness makes it difficult for the survivor to cope up with all of his daily routine (Pustilnik, 2005). Sometimes, it is not easy to understand that it is really mental illness or normal stress. If a person is not treated on time, it could be worsen. At an individual level, the root of mental illness could be some genetic issues, Parental damage, Individual is never supported by his family, chemical imbalance in the body of individual, attachment from somebody, Life failure, poverty etc. If an individual face any of the above mentioned factors, than he could be a patient of mental illness. At micro level, the oppression of individual, small group or a family is taking care of. An individual goes through many steps due to mental illness. Mostly, the behavior of such kind of people is not understandable (Corrigan, Kerr Knudsen, 2005). An individual with this illness may be criticized every time by his own family and friends. And it is also found that people make a stereotype that such person cannot do anything perfectly. An individual or a small group may experience immense sense of loss of interest, lack of motivation, energy, despair etc. Family and society must have a positive outlook towards them; they must motivate such humans and help them to come over it. A communication with such people can help them to come over it (Mechanic, McAlpine Rochefort, 2013). Family and relatives must give their ears to their problems and try to sort it out. All of it could help the individual in reducing the stress and thus the illness could be overcome. Mezzo: At mezzo level, a person could face the mental illness because of a bad relationship with colleague or boss, inability to do work, not capable enough to meet the job requirement, not able to fulfill the social expectation, communication issue with colleague and boss or people outside, some psychological issues, fear etc. A person with mental disability finds it difficult to work with effectively. The working life of those guys gets change completely because of the changes they are facing in their life (Corrigan, 2005). At the workplace, they feel nervous or they fail to give their 100% to their work. In the organization, they find it difficult to communicate with everybody. Even sometimes they become uncontrollable. At this level, an individual start losing his tolerance power and a high suspicion level of outsider is felt by him. They find it complicated to deal with anybody. It becomes tough for them to set all the things perfectly. For make a control over it and for resolving the illness, organization and colleague must help them by maintain a good relationship with them, hearing them patiently, helping them in their work and believing them that they could do this work (Charmaz, 2011). A person who is facing this level of illness must consult his doctor and take treatment. Macro: At macro level, the root of mental illness could be sociological factor, political and legal factor, cultural factor, government, social events, stress due to some legal factor, poverty, social expectation, esteem, stereotype etc (Corrigan Kleinlein, 2005). A person with mental disability could not work with effeciency. The working life of those guys gets change completely because of the changes they are facing in their life. In the society, they feel nervous or they get fail to give their 100% to their social and political life. In the Society, they find it difficult to communicate with everybody. Even sometimes they become uncontrollable. At this level, an individual start losing his tolerance power and a high suspicion level of outsider is felt by him (Angermeyer Dietrich, 2006). They find it complicated to deal with anybody. It becomes tough for them to set all the things perfectly. For make a control over it and for resolving the illness, society, political and legal factor, government and police must help them by providing them a proper treatment and help them to maintain a good relationship with everybody. For it, they must treat every person diligently and must hear them patiently; helping them in their work and believing them that they could do any work (De Silva, McKenzie, Harpham Huttly, 2005). A person who is facing this level of illness must be taking care by every member of the society so that they could also live their life happily. Conclusion: After doing a study on mental illness and its level and the root of the mental illness at many places, it has been concluded that the patient of mental illness must be taking care by everybody to make them feel good for themselves and for the society. They must not be the part of any injustice and government must introduce some policies for them. A good policy would help such people in live their life happily and would even help them to overcome from this illness. Family, group, organization and society must be kind for them and try to understand them and motivate them to do their work. It would help them to feel that they are of some worth and this would help them to reduce the illness of theirs. References: Angermeyer, M. C., Dietrich, S. (2006). Public beliefs about and attitudes towards people with mental illness: a review of population studies.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica,113(3), 163-179. Charmaz, K. (2011). Grounded theory methods in social justice research.The Sage handbook of qualitative research,4, 359-380. Corrigan, P. W. (2005).On the stigma of mental illness: Practical strategies for research and social change. American Psychological Association. Corrigan, P. W., Kleinlein, P. (2005). The Impact of Mental Illness Stigma. Corrigan, P. W., Kerr, A., Knudsen, L. (2005). The stigma of mental illness: Explanatory models and methods for change.Applied and Preventive Psychology,11(3), 179-190. Corrigan, P. W., Watson, A. C., Barr, L. (2006). The selfstigma of mental illness: Implications for selfesteem and selfefficacy.Journal of social and clinical psychology,25(8), 875-884. De Silva, M. J., McKenzie, K., Harpham, T., Huttly, S. R. (2005). Social capital and mental illness: a systematic review.Journal of epidemiology and community health,59(8), 619-627. Mechanic, D., McAlpine, D. D., Rochefort, D. A. (2013).Mental health and social policy: Beyond managed care. Pearson Higher Ed. Pustilnik, A. C. (2005). Prisons of the mind: Social value and economic inefficiency in the criminal justice response to mental illness.The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1973-),96(1), 217-266. Rsch, N., Angermeyer, M. C., Corrigan, P. W. (2005). Mental illness stigma: concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma.European psychiatry,20(8), 529-539.

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Moreover, when looking at Geer... free essay sample

Moreover, when looking at Geertz book Religion as a Cultural System Geertz paid more attention to the ways in which religion is articulated, how religion connects with the spiritual aspects and sorcery, his definition of religion is that Religion is a system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive and long-lasting moods and motivations. Religion is mostly used in ways that it paints a picture of how a person should live and the way things really are, everyone has specific values that they hold but it might differ from another individuals morals and value they hold. Each person performs religious practices differently but the interpretation of religion is the one gets everyone confused. For example the Indigenous view dream time as a religion where they sing and write stories for generations, witchcraft and sorcery might also be viewed as a religion to some people and then we have Islamic, Christianity and science, which people also beliefs and that belief might have a certain affect on them including their prospective of how they view the world. We will write a custom essay sample on Moreover, when looking at Geer or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As Greetz mentioned Some of the most important effects of the religious perspective come through a redefinition of our daily life in life of religious perspectives (Geertz 1973, clothing perceptions†¦pp. 24-35).Additionally, In comparison to Linda H. Connor and Geoffrey Samuels book Healing Powers and Modernity focuses more on the indigenous healings and Islamic perception of sorcery. He believes that many people luck proper education in Indonesia therefore are unaware of western healings compared to the mens who are educated. The connotation of illness still largely constituted through social relations that have persisted from one generation to the next. Sorcery has a continuity of meaning from pre-Islamic times to the present because it has always provided an explanatory link between illness and ever-present strains in village social relationships. From the villagers point of view, local variants of biomedicine are part of state-promoted modernist discourse. Until such time as a different engagement with the date evolves through redistributions of power and knowledge, rural people will continue to favour those healing resources that are given to them and that could involve sorcery in other hand sorcery can easily be accessed to compared to western medicine due to the cost of medication while traditional healing is less expensive or might even be free depending on agreement, which are embedded in the social field of the village.Healing and power in Indonesia are formed into two medical systems, which are the biomedicine and indigenous medicine. The, Elah villagers have access to both. The Indigenous healings are made through body customary medical practices performed by numerous skilled Belian. The curing practices of Belian originated in the Waktu Telu religion. There are approximately thirty seven Balinese people who lives in the Elah village, mostly in their forties and older. When illnesses or diseases occurs in that village, it is u sually treated through different magic practices such as teeth treatment, illnesses, deliverance of babies, producing love magic and sorcery, (Hunter 2001). Even though there is other safer ways to delivering baby apart from using magic the Belian still choose to do sorcery because they believe it works better and most people feel that its cheaper to access. In regards to John P. Taylors book, he describes Nakaemas, which is another word for sorcery/witchcraft in the Vanuatu society to be resonated in an everyday life of people in Vanuatu. Nakaema is not defined as broader practice of magic that involves discussions of sorcery or witchcraft in the academic literature but rather a wicked practices that is seen mostly in the North Efate, some of the practices includes poisoning, bodily possession, transforming people into certain animals such as Dogs and sometimes transforming them into devil itself, they control human body and mind and even death can occur through Nakaemas. Throughout the text Taylor had mentioned that victims are usually attacked due to jealousy, wealth, gossips and ownerships. He believes that those practices are a com bination of the moral, physical and sacred sacred force.Furthermore, the anthropologists believe that when taking a spiritual belief one has to search and know which agency they are from and who it affects. They believe that humans are both the sources and bearers of agency, individual such as politicians, lawyers, and presidents also undergo self-protection and secure themselves from the forces attacks of witchcraft; those protections are done through a spiritual healers called Klevas who uses multiple traditional medicine such as plants and other healing practices to protect the individuals from witchcraft. Klevas also helps reveal the causes done by Nakaema, protect people from a curse and also bring an end to a curse and other form of Nakaemas power. (Taylor 2015). Taylor describes Kleva as the human interaction between sacred power of Christianity and sorcery with the combination powers of black and white magic.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Correctional theory and policy Essays

Correctional theory and policy Essays Correctional theory and policy Essay Correctional theory and policy Essay in his survey of this plan, found that the consequence on cut downing recidivism worked for the first twelvemonth. However, the consequence seemed to vanish after two old ages ( Martinson, 1974, p. 33 ) . Does sentence length makes a difference in recidivism rates? It has been found that its consequence varies harmonizing to the type of wrongdoer. For illustration, Gerrity ( 1956 ) divided his wrongdoers into three classs – prosocial , anti-social , and manipulative ( Martinson, 1974, p. 37 ) . His findings with the prosocial wrongdoers was low recidivism rates which was non dependent on sentence length. The antisocial wrongdoer appeared to make better with shorter sentences while the manipulative wrongdoer did better with longer sentences ( Martinson, 1974, p. 37 ) . Psychotherapy in community scenes may work but minimum grounds exists to find true decrease in recidivism rates ( Martinson, 1974, p. 40 ) . OBrien ( 1961 ) in his survey of a community based plan found that they produce small betterment ( Martinson, 1974, p. 40 ) . When comparing probation/parole versus prison, Wilkins ( 1958 ) found that the usage of probation did non increase recidivism rates significantly ( Martinson, 1974, p. 41 ) . Another survey conducted by the State of Michigan ( 1963 ) demonstrated the increased usage of probation led to improved recidivism rates ( Martinson, 1974, p. 42 ) . Yet, Babst and Shoham suggested a pessimistic decision when it concerns the bounds of intervention plans due to the features of wrongdoers such as age, type of discourtesy, and if they are a first clip wrongdoer. Some will make good while others do non ( Martinson, 1974, p. 42 ) . Johnson ( 1926 ) found that intensive supervising does non supply the rehabilitative benefits it claims ( Martinson, 1974, p. 46 ) . Martinson concludes his article with the position that there may be something that works or even working now but we have non discovered as yet that may discourage instead than remedy and reform a convicted wrongdoer every bit good as prevent offense ( Martinson, 1974, p. 50 ) . He believes that a better agencies of societal control may be possible ( Martinson, 1974, p. 50 ) . Challenge THE NOTHING WORKS VIEWPOINT Ted Palmer did non hold with Martinson s decision of nothing works . At the clip of Martinson s survey, meta-analysis was non available. He reviewed Martinson s readings of what the surveies really found ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, pp. 154-155 ) . Palmer noted that Martinson had cited 82 surveies that included recidivism informations and found that 39 of the surveies could be categorized as decreased recidivism ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 155 ) He farther reported that there was sufficient grounds that half the clip the intervention worked ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 156 ) . Palmer felt that if true, so one should look at what was different from those that were non successful and believe that rehabilitation is patterned and non random ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 156 ) . In the 1990s, a meta-analysis was done on available surveies which evaluates surveies and uses statistics to find the relationship between the intervention intercession and the steps of recidivism. It can be zero , positive or negative Zero meant no consequence on recidivism. Positive meant it increases recidivism. Negative meant it reduced recidivism. This relationship is known as the consequence size ( Cullen and Jonson,2012, p. 160 ) . The meta-analysis found that the overall consequence of rehabilitative plans is +.10 which means that the recidivism rate for control groups were approximately 10 % higher than the intervention group. This clearly contradicts Martinson s findings ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 162 ) . The research showed that Martinson s decision was really a anticipation of homogeneousness of consequence sizes. The meta-analysis suggested that the effects of intervention plans are really heterogenous. It further shows that some plans had no consequence. Yet, other types of plans did the antonym. They demonstrated consequence sizes of +.25 or higher which means the recidivism rates for intervention groups would be 37.5 % where control groups would hold 62.5 % . The Canadian bookmans who conducted the meta-analysis developed three chief rules of effectual intercession that if followed by the plans would ensue in a meaningful decrease in recidivism ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 162 ) . The consequence of meta-analysis on Martinson s nothing works philosophy gave rehabilitation protagonists qualitative grounds that intervention plans do cut down recidivism and that some plans are effectual ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, pp. 163-164 ) . Principles OF EFFECTIVE INTERVENTION Harmonizing to Cullen and Jonson ( 2012 ) , a better and more systematic attack is to implement plans based on the rules of effectual intervention . Empirical grounds has shown that it is the most powerful through empirical observation justified intervention paradigm available ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 165 ) . The rules of effectual intercession are ( 1 ) intercession should aim known forecasters of offense and recidivism. This is known as the needs rule. There are two forecasters that categorizes an wrongdoer as at hazard for offense. The first is inactive. These represent the wrongdoer s condemnable history and can non be changed. The 2nd forecasters are known as dynamic. These include antisocial attitudes and values which can be changed ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, pp. 166-167 ; Andrews and Bonta, 2010, p. 47 ) ; ( 2 ) intercession requires that intervention services be based on cognitive behavioural intercession. This rule is besides known as the responsivity rule ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, pp. 167-168 ; Andrews and Bonta, 2010, p. 48 ) . Harmonizing to Andrews ( 1995 ) , intercessions must include cognitive behavioural and societal larning techniques of mold, graduated pattern, function playing, support, extinction, resource proviso, concrete verbal suggestions ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 168 ) . The support must be positive and services intense. If the intercessions used do non turn to the factors, it will non be effectual ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, 168 ) ; ( 3 ) intercession is the usage of intercession interventions that address the dynamic hazard factors of high hazard wrongdoers ( Andrews and Bonta, 2010, p. 49-50 ) . Cullen and Johnson ( 2012 ) suggest that high hazard wrongdoers can alter and hold demonstrated that intervention services provided a major nest eggs and recidivism ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 168 ) . It was further noted that successful appraisal of high hazard wrongdoers is possible when the trust of clinical judgements of couns ellors are non used ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 168 ) . Clinical judgements are similar to insider cognition ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 168 ) ; and ( 4 ) intercession is that we must take into consideration other factors and reference these to obtain an addition in intervention effectivity and run intoing the wrongdoer s demands ( Andrews and Bonta, 2010, pp. 50-52 ) For this, it is indispensable to carry on intercessions within the community, guarantee good trained staff are interpersonally positive, are monitored and cognize how to present the intervention service ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 169 ) . Follow-up on wrongdoers should be done after completion of intervention plan and supply aftercare when needed. Specific responsivity is indispensable as the intervention should be carried out and matched to the wrongdoers larning manner for it to be effectual. One illustration given by Cullen and Jonson ( 2012 ) , wherein all wrongdoers with a low IQ may non react good to verbal intercessions but respond better to intercessions that provide touchable reinforcing stimuluss and insistent behavioral dry run and determining skills ( p. 169 ) . RESTORATIVE JUSTICE The function of renewing justness ( RJ ) is to enforce some signifier of penalty while integrating efforts to rehabilitate the wrongdoer every bit good as conveying damages to the victim by the wrongdoer. RJ has three cardinal rules: 1 ) offense is harmful to the community, the victims every bit good as to the wrongdoer ; 2 ) its end should be to change by reversal the injury caused by the condemnable act ; and 3 ) this is accomplished through sentencing and correctional plans that are geared to reconstruct the victims, the community and the wrongdoer to the original province before the offense ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, pp. 129-130 ) . There are two attacks to RJ. The first is the victim becomes cardinal to the condemning process ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 130 ) . With this attack, the province serves more as an supreme authority instead than an adversary and allows victims the chance to voice their feelings and present their involvements in the affair ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 130 ) . The 2nd attack is the reintegration of the wrongdoer into the community and to dishonor the act instead than stigmatise the individual for the remainder of his or her life ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 130 ) . If the wrongdoer is non successfully reintegrated into the community, farther offense will be committed. It is common that a victim-offender conference is held with the end to let the wrongdoer to demo compunction and come to some type of damages that is acceptable to both the victim and the wrongdoer. Cullen and his co-workers believe RJ is an appealing theory for three grounds. The first is that it seems to profit all parties as it lessens the injury to all. Second, it is supported by both progressives and conservativists as they argue that the correctional system pays excessively much attending on the wrongdoer while pretermiting the victim. The 3rd ground is the pickings of duty and answerability for his actions with a societal exchange with the victim ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, pp.132-133 ) . There may be factors that may do RJ non to successfully make its intended end such as the justness job, the prison job, and the criminological job ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 137 ) . There are many theories of corrections stressing penalty. It is more focussed on acquiring justness. With RJ, the wrongdoer can apologize but may neglect to truly reconstruct the victim. In this sense, RJ does non supply justness but transforms into an injustice for the victim ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 137 ) . The 2nd issue is that RJ can be implemented while in prison where they may hold the conferences and the wrongdoer may take to pay monies from his prison net incomes but the end is to take wrongdoers from the condemnable justness plan so that justness can be achieved in the community ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 137 ) . The concluding issue for RJ is the criminological job. The issue stems from whether the behaviour of the wrongdoer can be changed and of the wish to alter and reconstruct the victim. RJ has been shown through research to cut down recidivism to the extent as human service intercession. However, it does non cut down recidivism every bit good every bit rehabilitate as RJ is based on a theory of offense ; it does non aim alteration of known forecasters of recidivism, its intercessions is excessively weak to alter serious wrongdoers and ignores the rules of effectual correctional intercession ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, pp 134-139 ) . Early Intervention Early intercession is indispensable as it is effectual in cut downing offense and costs ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 202 ) . There is much to be learned from the life rhythm of a kid as it develops.. Surveies have shown that kids develop condemnable inclinations early on childhood such as aggression ( hit, bite, kick, and jostle one another ) . Yet, they are non seen as felons and are easy ignored ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, pp. 170-171 ) . Terri Moffit ( 1993 ) developed a developmental theory of antisocial behaviour which was consistent with traditional criminology. She found that striplings normally commit offenses during their teenage old ages. However, she farther indicated that the roots of chronic offending begins in early childhood ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, pp. 175-177 ) . Moffit s theory was of import because it legitimized two positions about offenses. The first is that chronic piquing Begins in early childhood. The 2nd is that continuity is the trademark of the little group of life-course relentless antisocial individuals whereas the group does non alter across the life class ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 176 ) . Moffit s theory demonstrates that early antisocial behaviour is a strong marauder of delinquency ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 176 ) . Harmonizing to Robins, adult societal behaviour requires childhood and societal behaviour. There are some cautions which must be kept in head such as the fact that holding behavior jobs during early childhood does non intend that it will take to a life of offense. If stableness in behaviour is invariably in problem kids will most probably be troubled teens. Antisocial grownups who are imprisoned normally have their roots in early childhood ( Cullen and Jonson p 177 ) . Therefore, childhood criminology provides the rational decision that early intercession is necessary. Longitudinal surveies are the lone manner to capture how and when condemnable callings unfold ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, p. 177 ) . By supplying early intercession, it can cut down the possible costs and may even forestall the continuity of life-course relentless wrongdoers. Longitudinal surveies are dearly-won and span over a period of old ages but the information obtained brings forth new findings that allow the corr ectional system to concentrate on early intercession much Oklahoman and create age based plans from pre-school to household therapy, It is cost effectual and has strong public support ( Cullen and Jonson, 2012, pp. 177-202 ) . PUBLIC OPINION AND REHABILITATION Harmonizing to Cullen, Vose, Lero-Jonson, and Unnever ( 2007 ) , study research has shown that the public supports a social public assistance rehabilitative attack to crime ( p. 109 ) . Opinion polls have besides revealed that the bulk of Americans support policies such as capital penalty, three work stoppages Torahs and harsher condemnable tribunals ( Cullen, et Al, 2007, p. 110 ) . However, there is still ideological infinite for reformatory scheduling such as early intercession ( Cullen, et Al, 2007, p. 111 ) . In another canvass, utilizing a Likert graduated table, research workers asked the respondents to province what should be the prison s focal point. The response picks were rehabilitative , punishment , or protect society . In a forced pick response set, the surveies have been consistent in uncovering that from a one-fourth to half of the respondents selected rehabilitation as their preferable end attack ( Cullen, et Al, 2007, p. 112 ) . The United States is non merely a sci entific state but besides a state that values societal public assistance ( Cullen, et Al, 2007, p. 120 ) . After reappraisal of the research it is evident that the public strongly supports early intercession. Decision Through the research and qualitative grounds provided, it has been demonstrated that rehabilitation and early intercession plants. It is besides strongly supported by the populace. There is still much to be learned. However, through new research new and improved plans can be created to increase the success of rehabilitation and the decrease of recidivism. After reexamining Martinson s nothing works philosophy and the findings of Ted Palmer and the Canadian bookmans meta-analysis, it is clear that intervention plans cut down recidivism if done right and evaluated through meta-analysis from clip to clip to mensurate the continuity of its effectivity. Mentions Martinson, R. 1974. What Works? Questions and Answers About Prison Reform. The Public Interest35 ( Spring ) :22-54. Andrews, D. A. , and J. Bonta. 2010.The Psychology of Criminal Conduct.New Providence, NJ: Anderson.Chapter 2, pp. 49-78, The Empirical Base of PCC and the RNR Model of Assessment and Crime Prevention Through Human Service. Cullen, F. T. and C. L. Jonson. 2012.Correctional Theory: Context and Consequences.Chapter 7. Rehabilitation: What Works to Change Offenders. Cullen, F. T. and C. L. Jonson. 2012.Correctional Theory: Context and Consequences. Chapter 8, Early Intervention: Salvaging Children From a Life in Crime, Cullen, F. T. B. A. Vose, C. L. Jonson, and J. D. Unnever. 2007. Public Support for Early Intervention: Is Child Salvaging a Habit of the Heart? Victims and Wrongdoers2 ( No. 2 ) :109-124. 1

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Sociology of war 3153 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Sociology of war 3153 - Essay Example When that much time is taken in the building up of hatred, the matter of winning and losing can become the matter of life and death. Kashmir has been always the premium issue between Pakistan and India. One of the main reasons that Pakistan wants a substantial area of Kashmir is that it is one of the most vital resources of water for it. There is a huge number of Muslims in Kashmir who want to be a part of Pakistan. That is why there is an uprising of Kashmiris against the Indian army for freedom and they are oppressed by them by the use of violence. The opposition seemed to have died down in the past 10 years but now again; the protest is as stronger as ever. The world has neglected this issue so far but it must not be neglected further. Pakistan and India are nuclear powers now and an outbreak of war between them could be the beginning of a Third World War. There are many consequences that the aggravation of this conflict would entail. The involvement of China is sure as they have a claim on an area of Kashmir called Ladakh. They have been at war with India in the past on this issue3. The continuing investment of China in Pakistan is worrying India as they claim that it is â€Å"part of China’s growing encirclement of India†4. They are closing in on the completion of a naval base in Gawadar which would improve their trade and be very useful for war motives. On the other hand, the U.S is automatically drawn in the issue as they want Pakistan to employ their army on war on terror5 rather than on the Indian border. There is also confusion for Pakistan as when they see the strengthening friendship of U.S with India, it’s not clear whether U.S is their friend or an enemy. U.S wants a stable Pakistan for a stable Afghanistan but it is not likely to happen. They have sufficient influence over both Pakistan and India to do many